Family that brings together some dozen species of evergreen plants coming mainly from the tropical areas, in nature they reach imposing dimensions, cultivated in pots they remain on the 2-3 meters, the bonsai specimens remain instead under the meter of height. It has dark green brilliant, oval, pointed cravings, with a waxy appearance; the trunk is greyish-brown in color, fairly clear, sometimes flecked or slightly wrinkled, more often smooth and with a silky appearance.
Also called Japanese elm, in nature this deciduous plant reaches a height of 30 meters; it has medium-sized leaves, green, serrated, very dense, roundish foliage; brown bark, green flowers, insignificant. The leaves in autumn, before falling, turn yellow-orange.
With the arrival of the cool autumn it is good to quickly place the indoor bonsai in the apartment and the outdoor bonsai in a sheltered and fairly sunny area of the garden or terrace. We reduce watering and avoid supplying fertilizers that are too rich in nitrogen, which favor the development of new branches, too delicate to withstand low winter temperatures; instead we prefer organic fertilizers or fertilizers rich in potassium and phosphorus, which favor the development of the root system and the lignification of plant tissues, making it more resistant to low temperatures.
The genus Fraxinus has about a dozen deciduous trees and shrubs, originating in Europe, from Asia and from North America; F. excelsior is a tree native to Europe, which in nature reaches 25-30 m in height; has compound leaves, consisting of 9-13 small oval leaves, dark green, which become golden yellow in autumn, before falling.
Often in bonsai exhibitions we have the joy of showing, next to bonsai pots, other small vases, containing bulbous plants, grasses or other perennial plants, cultivated themselves as bonsai; it is Shitakusa, or accompanying or complementary plants. These small plants are cultivated as bonsai in order to give harmony to the bonsai itself at the time of exposure.
The art of bonsai consists in being able to contain a tree in very small dimensions; through particular and careful cultivation treatments, the bonsai artist over the years succeeds in stimulating in the plant the production of small leaves, small flowers, branches similar to that of large trees; in this way it encloses in a vase the superb and proud beauty of a centenary tree.
Maples are among the most cultivated plants as outdoor bonsai; the many varieties of acer palmatum are preferred, thanks to the already reduced size of the foliage compared to the other species of maple; these plants can also present different types of foliage, many of which have very pleasant colors, some all year round, others only in autumn, before the fall.
Bonsaism enthusiasts often choose conifer specimens to produce their artwork; in fact there are hundreds of species and varieties of conifers, most of which are very hardy and hardy, thus placing a good base for an outdoor bonsai, without major problems with the cold in the shade or with the summer heat.
Carmona is a shrub of tropical origin, it comes from China, where it has also been cultivated as bonsai for centuries; the most used species are carmona microphylla and carmona macrophlylla, which differ only in the size of the foliage. These are evergreen shrubs, densely branched, the stems already present at a young age a twisted course and a gray and cracked bark, which also give the specimens of a few years the appearance of an ancient shrub.