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Top rot is a common disorder in nightshade crops: tomatoes suffer from it, often its symptoms appear on peppers. Fortunately, the disease is not infectious; it can develop on crops grown in open ground and greenhouses.
- What does it look like in the photo, what symptoms are manifested
- For what reasons does pathology arise?
- Bacterial form of the disease
- Top rot on peppers in greenhouses and open field
- Disease Control Drugs
- Traditional methods of treatment
- Preventive measures
What does it look like in the photo, what symptoms are manifested
Top rot on peppers often affects unripe fruits. The initial stage is small dark spots on the top of the fruit. They can be gray or brown in color, watery formations quickly grow in size and become hard to the touch.
In some cases, external manifestations are barely noticeable, but when cutting the fruit, brown or blackened tissues are observed.
For what reasons does pathology arise?
The reasons that provoke the development of apical rot on peppers:
- the air temperature is above + 25 - + 30 С;
- lack of moisture, or sudden changes in humidity;
- insufficient lighting;
- unbalanced feeding;
- heavy soil that interferes with the normal respiration of the roots;
- root damage during weeding.
With an increase in air temperature, accelerated evaporation of moisture by leaves occurs, if there is not enough moisture in the soil, or the roots do not cope well with their tasks, then the process of moisture outflow from the fruits to the leaves begins. This process causes partial cell death at the tops of the pods.
Bushes planted on saline or acidified soils suffer from this phenomenon to a greater extent.
A lack of phosphorus, manganese, calcium in the soil, or an excess of nitrogen, magnesium, potassium, leads to the manifestation of identical symptoms.
Note that with a lack of calcium, external signs of the disease may not appear, but by cutting the fruit, you can see the affected brown spots.
Bacterial top rot
In addition to physiological pathology, pathogenic bacteria in the ground, the remains of dead plants, can also lead to the appearance of apical rot, and they can also be spread by insects.
Among the dangerous provoking factors, we also note the air temperature above + 28 + 30 C with humidity above 70%. Such conditions often occur in greenhouses.
The bacterial form of the disease affects fruits lying on the ground or touching it. This happens if the bushes are not tied up, especially if the first clusters of fruits are very low.
Top rot on peppers in the greenhouse and in the open field
An ailment appears during the period when the harvest is ripe. At the initial stage, watery areas appear, after increasing in size, they acquire a dark gray or brown color. The reason for the appearance of dark spots is actively multiplying saprophytic fungi.
The skin on the damaged surfaces becomes rough, and, as it were, is drawn inward. In the thickness of the walls of the fruit, necrotic changes occur, this is clearly visible when cut
Apical rot is a disease that is not infectious, however, fruits damaged by it often suffer from damage by fungi or viruses.
If, due to weather conditions, the situation with top rot repeats from year to year, then planting varieties of peppers that are resistant to it would be a good option.
We indicate them in Table 1.
|Pepper variety||Brief characteristics|
|Eroshka||High-yielding, can be grown outdoors and in greenhouses. Relatively resistant to viral diseases and apical rot|
|Miracle tree f1||Indoor hybrid. Withstands poor lighting, is resistant to top rot.|
|Agapovsky||Gives excellent yields when grown outdoors and in greenhouses. It rarely gets sick. Resistant to sudden changes in temperature|
An early ripe high-yielding hybrid, distinguished by stress resistance and weather changes
Let's watch a useful video about peak rot on peppers and the reasons for its appearance:
Biological and chemical agents for disease control
You can fight top rot on peppers in the greenhouse and in the open field with the help of fairly effective drugs that are widely available in the network of gardening stores.
To make it more convenient to study, let's draw up table 2.
|Drug name||How to prepare the composition||Expected results|
|Potassium humate, or Gumfield||5g for 50 l of water||Increasing resistance to droughts, diseases. Growth stimulation|
|Megafall||20 ml for 10 l of water||Stress protection, plant growth stimulation. Providing mineral elements necessary for growth.|
|Brexil calcium||1.5 - 2 g per 1 liter of water||Eliminates the lack of boron and calcium, prevents the development of pathologies|
|Fitosporin||3 teaspoons for 10 liters of water||Biofungicide inhibiting the development of apical rot|
Folk remedies for treatment
To combat pepper ailment, they are used:
- when the first signs appear, use an infusion of 50 g of bone meal in 1 liter of boiling water, hold the solution for a week, filter, dilute with 20 liters of water. Used for processing leaves.
- calcium acetate solution. It is prepared by mixing 1 liter of 9% vinegar and one glass of chalk, upon completion of the chemical reaction, the agent is diluted in 30 liters of water;
An equally effective remedy is wood ash. Its infusion is added to water for watering bushes, plants are powdered with it.
There are many remedies for the treatment of peak rot on peppers in greenhouses and open ground. But as the best option, we will still call the competent application of preventive measures.
Irrigation should be planned taking into account the weather conditions; in the heat, you will need to add more water. During this period, it is rational to use drip irrigation, which ensures uniform soil moisture and does not provoke an increase in air humidity.
Mulching the beds is beneficial; dried grass, rotted sawdust, straw, compost can be used as mulch.
Excess leaves from the bushes should be removed, this procedure will reduce the evaporation of moisture, respectively, and its outflow will be less.
Acidic soils should be limed, dolomite flour and ash should be added to them.
It is important to treat the seeds with a solution of potassium permanganate, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, growth stimulants before sowing.
Greenhouses should be well ventilated and soil temperature and moisture controlled.
Diseased fruits should be removed from the bushes. Plants, if necessary, are fixed on supports. Stepsons should be removed carefully, minimally injuring the plants.
Let's watch another video with useful tips from an experienced agronomist:
Knowing the nature of the top rot and the reasons for the defeat of peppers by it, experienced vegetable growers cope with the problem quickly enough. In this case, the introduction of full-fledged dressings, processing of plants and timely watering are effective.