It's a troublesome time for all gardeners - sowing seeds and growing tomato seedlings.
Since tomato is a heat-loving vegetable, it will be quite difficult to get a good harvest without a greenhouse. The greenhouse should be located in such a place that sunlight gets into it all day, otherwise you will not get a full harvest.
- Soil preparation
- Selection and planting of seedlings
- Plant care
- Top dressing
The following tips on how to grow tomatoes may come in handy for novice gardeners and gardeners.
It is undesirable to grow tomatoes in the same greenhouse for several years: the plants will hurt. Previously, tomatoes were alternated with cucumbers, but recently these plants began to be affected by the same disease - anthracnose. In this regard, before planting a tomato in a greenhouse, change the soil and spray it with a hot (100 g. C) solution of copper sulfate. To prepare the solution, you need 1 tablespoon of fertilizer per bucket of water.
A week before planting, the beds are prepared. The beds are made 25-30 cm high and 60-90 centimeters wide with good drainage and loosening, moderate humidity. Passages 60-70 centimeters wide are left between them.
For planting tomatoes, use loamy or clayey soil. Peat, sawdust and humus are added to it in equal amounts. For 1 square meter of soil, you need 3 buckets of the mixture.
If peat is used instead of soil, then humus, turf soil, sawdust and sand are added to it in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 0.5. The prepared soil is fertilized with double granular superphosphate (3 tbsp), potassium sulfate (1 tbsp), potassium magnesium (1 tbsp), sodium nitrate (1 tbsp) and wood ash (1-2 tbsp) .).
Selection and planting of seedlings
For greenhouse cultivation, tomato hybrids are selected, primarily resistant to diseases, with limited growth (determinant and semi-determinant), which are formed in one stem, with a growing season of up to 4 months.
Tomatoes are planted in greenhouses in the first half of May in warmed-up ground (the ground temperature at a depth of 20 cm should be above 13 degrees C), when the height of the stems reaches 30-35 cm.At this age, the seedlings will survive transplantation and sudden temperature changes well.
Tall varieties are planted in a checkerboard pattern or in rows at a distance of 50-60 centimeters, dwarf and medium-sized ones - 40 centimeters.
Non-overgrown seedlings are planted vertically. If the plants are elongated, then they are laid obliquely, breaking off the lower sheets and sprinkling with earth.
Tomatoes are planted in holes poured with an unsaturated solution of manganese (1 gram per 10 liters of water) with the addition of complex organomineral fertilizer. After planting, the seedlings should not be watered for two weeks as the tomatoes will root better.
Next, the tomatoes are watered at the root, avoiding moisture on the leaves and branches in order to avoid infection.
Half a month after planting, the bushes must be tied to a trellis. The temperature in the greenhouse is maintained at 18-30 grams. FROM.
Although tomatoes are self-pollinating plants, for better pollination, they can be helped by shaking the brushes in sunny weather. Immediately after that, the soil is watered or sprayed with flowers, and after 2 hours the greenhouse is aired.
For the correct formation of the plant, it is necessary to remove the stepsons until they have reached a length of 5 cm. If you remove the larger stepchildren, then the tomatoes will experience stress. When fruits appear, all leaves below the inflorescence are removed from the stems. It is better to remove leaves and stepchildren in clear, warm weather, as the wounds heal faster.
Water the bushes after 5-6 days. But do not overdo it, as in fruits from high humidity, the meatiness and sugar content will decrease, they will become sour and watery, and begin to crack.
The key to a good harvest is timely feeding. Fertilizers begin to be applied with the appearance of the first ovaries. Usually use potassium monophosphate (1 tablespoon per bucket of water). The next feeding is done after 10 days.
Foliar dressing gives a good result. They help to get an early harvest, nourish plants and prevent disease. Such feeding should be done weekly. For this purpose, use urea, potassium monophosphate, Aquarin, potassium and calcium nitrate (one teaspoon per bucket of water), alternating them. It is better to apply these fertilizers in the evening.
Tomato seedlings can get black leg disease. To prevent disease, the soil must be changed before planting the tomato.
Very often tomatoes are affected by late blight. To avoid disease, plants are preventively treated three times a season with such solutions:
- "Zaslon" (1 cap for 300 grams of water) - the first treatment;
- "Barrier" (5 tablespoons per bucket of water) - the second treatment;
- garlic solution - third treatment.
The first time the tomatoes are sprayed 3 weeks after the seedlings have been planted in the greenhouse, the second - after 20 days and the third - when the third brush blooms on the bushes.
Tomatoes are harvested a little unripe.
By following these simple recommendations on how to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, you can get an early, rich harvest of tomatoes.