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Cherries are fruit plants from the Plum genus. Let's try to figure out how to care for cherries of different ages and in different seasons.
- Cherry care after planting
- Caring for cherry trees over three years old
- How to deal with pests and diseases of cherry trees
Cherry care after planting
Caring for cherry trees starts with choosing healthy planting material. It is advisable to do this in proven nurseries and garden centers. An annual or biennial plant should be chosen. It is necessary to give preference to seedlings that have already been crowned, that is, the seedling was pinched and this was the impetus for the growth of side branches. A one-year-old crowned cherry seedling already has three to four skeletal branches.
The best soil for cherry trees is light sandy or loamy soils with a neutral reaction. Caring for a cherry seedling also includes preparing the soil for planting, which consists in digging and applying organic and mineral fertilizers. The landing pit is prepared in a certain size:
- depth 50 - 60 cm
- up to 70 cm in diameter
The bottom of the pit is filled with earth from the upper fertile layer, to which a bucket of old, rotted manure and a complex mineral fertilizer in an amount of about 20 g of each active substance are added. After filling it with fertile soil, but before planting the seedling, a wooden stake is driven into the hole. This is necessary to fix the young cherry and speed up its rooting.
After planting in a hole, the root system is covered with soil, which is slightly compacted and spilled with a bucket of water. The trunk circle is mulched with peat or humus. Immediately after planting, all branches and the central shoot are cut at least 1/3, leaving three buds. A seedling without branches is simply shortened by 1/3. Further care in the year of planting is:
- in removing weeds
- in regular watering
- in dressings
- in loosening the soil
In the first summer, young cherries need at least 10 waterings. In the next two years, in addition to the above activities, formative pruning is carried out.
Caring for cherry trees over three years old
The basic principles of caring for cherries are fundamentally not very different from caring for other fruit trees. Cherry is a drought-resistant plant, but it must be watered several times during the season:
- first watering - May and early June, during the period when the cherry forms the ovary
- second watering - July and early August, when flower buds of the next season are formed on the cherry
- the third watering - after the fall of leaves, before the onset of winter
The irrigation rate is selected individually for each tree and depends on the weather conditions, on average 2 - 3 buckets are enough. During periods of severe drought, you can water the tree with plenty of water, about 10 buckets, which will give the cherry the necessary moisture supply.
The first feeding coincides with the first watering, so these two activities are combined. In addition to mineral fertilizers, you can water the cherry with a solution of manure or mullein to which wood ash is added. The plant needs a second feeding two weeks after the first. The second time, the cherries can be fed with a complex mineral fertilizer.
To improve the quality and taste of the fruit, fertilizers containing the boron element can be applied two weeks before ripening. After harvesting, in the fall, cherries need mandatory feeding before the onset of winter. Phosphorus - potash and organic fertilizers are introduced. If the soil is acidic, then the cherry fruits are prone to shedding, in order to prevent this, a lime solution is poured under the cherry every three to four years.
Video about what diseases affect the young cherry tree:
In early spring, the soil in the trunk circle must be cleaned of plant debris, mulch mixtures removed. This must be done before the first watering. Let the soil dry. After watering, sprinkle the soil under the tree with new mulch. During the season, the soil needs to be loosened two or three times, and before the onset of winter, the ground under the tree can be dug up, this event is usually combined with the application of fertilizers. In winter, cover the soil under the tree with a thick layer of snow.
Sanitary pruning is carried out in the spring. All broken and improperly growing branches are removed. Spring pruning is carried out before bud break. If for some reason this is not done, then the pruning is postponed until next spring. Remove all branches that grow inward or that are too sharp or too wide. In addition to the branches, cut out all shrunken trunks and remove excess root growth. Prevention and control of pests and diseases play an important role in the care of cherries.
How to deal with pests and diseases of cherry trees
Early spring spraying the trunks with a urea solution will help protect cherries from pests and diseases. It is important to do this even before the start of sap flow and not be late, otherwise you can burn the expanding buds. A trapping belt will be a prophylactic agent against some pests; a large number of insects will stick to its adhesive surface. The main pests of cherries are:
- cherry shoot moth
- cherry fly
- cherry leaf roll
- cherry elephant
With a minor lesion, you need to spray the tree with a decoction of tomato tops. To do this, four kg of tops, you can take with flowers and ovary, boil for half an hour in 10 liters of water. Then dilute one liter of the solution with three liters of water, add 20-30 grams of grated soap and process the cherries.
In case of emergency, the plant is sprayed with chemicals according to the instructions for them. Trees can be treated with any preparation containing copper.
Of the potent agents, rovekurt, actelik are suitable. It is important to remember that all treatments, especially with the use of chemicals, are completed two weeks before the fruits ripen and harvest. You can continue pest control after the fruits are harvested. Prevention and treatment of diseases is of great importance in the care of cherries. Most often, cherries suffer:
- from gum flow
- from coccomycosis
- from perforated spot
- from fruit rot
Cope with the most common disease - coccomycosis, early spring spraying with Bordeaux liquid will help. The use of the drug will also help. Since the pathogen hibernates in fallen leaves, all plant residues are carefully removed.
The main method of combating cherry diseases is timely treatment with fungicide solutions. To prevent gum flow, it is necessary to whiten the trunks in a timely manner, fight diseases and cover up large lesions on the bark. If you follow the basic rules of care, then cherries will definitely give a decent harvest of tasty and healthy fruits.